Should I consolidate or refinance my student loans? At Nelnet Bank, we get this question daily and it’s one every person with student loan debt should ask themselves. Of course, the answer depends on your specific situation and is not always clear cut. In many cases it makes total sense, while in others it may not, or at least not right now.
Before thinking through the different options available, you should understand the difference between consolidate and refinance.
Consolidating your student loans through the federal government’s Direct Consolidation Loan program means combining several loans into one new loan. The new interest rate is the weighted average of the interest rates from the loans you are consolidating. With refinancing, you are actually paying off your federal and/or private student loans with a new private loan. This new loan has a different interest rate and loan terms.
Now that you understand the basic difference between consolidation and refinancing, here are some things you should carefully consider:
- Do you want to save money by lowering your overall costs?
Many people know loans with lower interest rates generally cost less than loans with higher interest rates. But many don’t realize students who borrowed between 2006 and 2013 could substantially lower the interest rate on those loans. They may be eligible if they have good credit and refinance their loans during today’s historically low interest rate environment. Even if you’re comfortably making payments, lowering your interest rates can save on your total loan costs.
- Are you making multiple monthly payments?
Are you making more than one monthly payment and want to simplify your life? Loan consolidation or refinancing can help. However, if you have federal and private student loans and want only one monthly payment, your only option is refinancing. You cannot consolidate private loans through the Direct Consolidation Loan program.
- Do you want to switch your interest rate from a variable to a fixed rate (or vice versa)?
When you took out your student loans, each loan had either a fixed or variable interest rate. Understanding what type of interest rates you have is important. It affects whether or not your monthly loan payments will fluctuate over time. If you have fixed rate loans your monthly payments will remain constant. With variable rate loans your monthly payments may change over time.
Do you plan to pay off your loans in a short period of time? A variable rate loan could be a good option. The initial interest rate on a variable rate loan is typically less than on a fixed rate loan. However, the longer the repayment term, the greater the opportunity for variable interest rates to fluctuate. If rates rise, your monthly payment and total costs will rise as well.
- Do you want to lock in a fixed monthly payment with a low interest rate?
If you prefer predictable payments that won’t change over time, then a fixed rate loan may be your best choice. With the current low interest rate environment, you could lock in a low fixed interest rate by refinancing. Your rate depends on several factors. These factors include your credit, income, education level, repayment term, and whether or not you have a cosigner.
- Are your monthly payments weighing you down?
Are you having trouble making your monthly student loan payments? Do you just want to free up some extra cash? Refinancing your loans can be a great option. Most private loan lenders offer repayment terms up to 20 years, with some like Nelnet Bank offering a 25-year option. By increasing the length of your repayment period, you can lower your monthly payments. However, loans with longer repayment terms typically have higher interest rates than loans with shorter terms. You will likely end up paying more in total interest over the life of the loan.
- Will you lose any features or benefits if you refinance or consolidate your loans?
Refinancing or consolidation means you are replacing your loans with a new loan. It’s important to understand you might lose benefits tied to your original loans. For example, federal loans offer a variety of deferment, forbearance, and repayment options. These benefits assist borrowers who cannot afford their monthly payments. Federal loans also offer benefits to military service members that may not be available with private loans. Your current loans may also have borrower benefits such as an interest rate discount. Be sure to compare the features and benefits of your new loan with any you might be giving up.
If the time is right to refinance your student loans, take a moment to review several lender websites. Create a short list of top candidates. Call each candidate and ask them any questions you have, including what you will need to apply. Make sure you are speaking to the actual loan servicer. This is who you will interact with over the entire life of your new loan.
Nelnet Bank does not provide legal, investment, tax, or financial advice. This page and the information contained herein is for educational purposes only. For specific advice about your unique circumstances, consult with a qualified professional.